” Sindhu Ghati Sabhyata” (3300 BC to 1700 BC), One of the Indus valley civilizations of the world is a major civilization. In the northwestern regions of Asia, which till today is spread north-west of Afghanistan and Pakistan. With the ancient civilization of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of the three early chronological periods of the ancient world civilizations, and among the three, the most comprehensive and most discussed According to research published in the respected magazine Nature, this civilization is at least 8000 years old. The Harappan civilization also is known as Sindhu Ghati Sabhyata.
In the first talk about the Dinosaur era, the first egg of the dinosaur has been found in the “Rayali” village of Balasinor taluka of Mahisagar district.
There are two natural centers in Gujarat for this dinosaur
- Indroda park (Gandhinagar district)
- Hingolgadh (Rajkot district (Jasadan taluka))
Now let’s talk about the civilization of the Indus Valley of Gujarat, which is also called the Harappa civilization. All the cities of the Indus Valley civilization are from Gujarat, so let’s read them one by one in depth.
- Place = from Chadu taluka of Surendranagar district
- River = on the banks of river Bhadar
- Excavation = M.S Vats in 1931 and S.R Rao in 1953-54.
- Attribution = Rangpur is the city of the first discovered Indus Valley in Gujarat, and excavating it since 2007-08, so become last Indus valley city of Gujarat.
- No statue or currency has been found in Rangpur, but according to the available incidents, items like pottery, Nalla and soil allowances have been found and after the independence, the most remains have been found in Rangpur.
2) Lothal: (meaning = Zombies)
- Location = From Dholka taluka of Ahmedabad district
- River = near the banks of the river Bhogavo
- Excavation = S.R. Rao did in 1954
- Attribution = Lothal is located approximately 80 km south-west of Ahmedabad, and Lothal is considered from 2450 to 1200 BC. First people have settled in Lothal, and floods have become the cause of the destruction of citizens.
- According to this case published in 1879, Lothal was a port, now 18 km away from the sea, but it was first 5 km away in the sea.
- Speaking of the things that happened with Lothal, there is a skeleton from there, which can be estimated that there will be both fire and cremation functions. Talking about, the skeletal Lothal has been found, It can be assumed that cremation and burial were both exercises. Lothal’s Town Plan was beautiful, in which there were large buildings arranged on the roads and on the perimeter of the road.। It has been found that large bathrooms have been found in homes and Lothal’s house was made from roasted bricks. Lothal Messe got a game like string, ivory straps, and pottery.
- Place = Bharuch taluka of Kutch district
- Excavation = Researchers from Dholavira received in 1967. After the 1990s, systematic excavation began. This research was first done by Jagpati Joshi and then RS Bishtne.
- The other city of Harappa civilization was divided into two parts. While Dholavira was divided into three parts. Its area ranges from 775 meters east to west and 600 meters north to south. And the locals recognize Dholveera as “Kotada”.
- In all three parts found in Dholavira, the security arrangements are arranged, in which the fort was on the highest areas, and the people of the town lived in the middle and the lower part. Dholavira is in the quadrangle like other cities. Dholavira was located in Kutch, yet there was a facility to collect water.
- There are 10 inscriptions found in Dholavira Mesa Sindhu script, and 26 inscriptions have been found that no society has been found so far. Apart from this, Dholavira Mesa found gold-silver utensils and a 10-letter signboard which is considered to be the oldest signboard in the world.
- Location: Kutch District
- Excavation = Jagpati Joshi and A.K Sharma did
- Surakotada has got the brick and clay castle fort. In Surkotada, various types of graves and horse rides have been found.
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Apart from this, many small and big cities have been found in Gujarat, like ……
- Rojadi and cootasini from Rajkot
- Paliyad, Kot and Padhamani from Mahesana
- Jamnagar to Lakhavavad and Jamnagar
- Cities such as Kutch, Shikarpur, Surkotada and Desanpur have been found.
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